BALICITIZEN

Ikuti perkembangan terkini Indonesia di lapangan dengan berita berbasis fakta PosPapusa, cuplikan video eksklusif, foto, dan peta terbaru.

Teori relativitas Einstein tetap kuat setelah tantangan kuantum

Teori relativitas Einstein tetap kuat setelah tantangan kuantum

Para peneliti mengkonfirmasi asumsi dasar dalam fisika dengan ketelitian yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya — bahwa berbagai sifat massa, seperti berat, inersia, dan gravitasi, selalu setara, terlepas dari komposisi spesifik massa yang terlibat. Ini memperkuat prinsip kesetaraan, yang penting bagi teori relativitas Einstein, dan membahas titik kritis perbedaan antara fisika klasik dan fisika kuantum.

Tim peneliti dari Leibniz University Hannover dan University of Bremen mengkonfirmasi prinsip kesetaraan lainnya.

Para ilmuwan telah menggunakan setengah abad data rentang laser bulan untuk mengonfirmasi dengan akurasi 100 kali lebih besar bahwa semua properti massa adalah sama. Temuan ini sangat mendukung prinsip ekuivalensi Einstein, yang merupakan landasan teori relativitas.

Salah satu asumsi paling mendasar dari fisika fundamental adalah bahwa sifat massa yang berbeda—berat, inersia, dan gravitasi—selalu tetap sama satu sama lain. Tanpa kesepadanan ini, teori relativitas Einstein akan kontradiktif dan buku teks fisika yang ada harus ditulis ulang. Meskipun semua pengukuran hingga saat ini mengkonfirmasi prinsip ekuivalensi, teori kuantum berpendapat bahwa pasti ada pelanggaran. Perbedaan antara teori gravitasi Einstein dan teori kuantum modern inilah yang menjadi alasan mengapa pengujian prinsip kesetaraan yang lebih ketat menjadi sangat penting.

Sebuah tim dari Center for Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) di University of Bremen, bekerja sama dengan Institute for Geodesy (IfE) di Leibniz University Hannover, telah berhasil menunjukkan bahwa ukurannya 100 kali lebih besar.[{” attribute=””>accuracy that passive gravitational mass and active gravitational mass are always equivalent – regardless of the particular composition of the respective masses. The research was conducted within the framework of the Cluster of Excellence “QuantumFrontiers.” On July 13, the team published their findings as a highlights article in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Binary System Earth Moon

Binary system Earth-Moon. Credit: AEOS Medialab, ESA 2002

Physical context

Inertial mass resists acceleration. For example, it causes you to be pushed backward into your seat when the car starts. Passive gravitational mass reacts on gravity and results in our weight on Earth. Active gravitational mass refers to the force of gravitation exerted by an object, or more precisely, the size of its gravitational field. The equivalence of these properties is fundamental to general relativity. Therefore, both the equivalence of inertial and passive gravitational mass and the equivalence of passive and active gravitational mass are being tested with increasing precision.

Vishwa Vijay Singh

First Author of the Publication, Vishwa Vijay Singh. Credit: Singh

What was the study about?

If we assume that passive and active gravitational mass are not equal – that their ratio depends on the material – then objects made of different materials with a different center of mass would accelerate themselves. Since the Moon consists of an aluminum shell and an iron core, with centers of mass offset against each other, the Moon should accelerate. This hypothetical change in speed could be measured with high precision, via “Lunar Laser Ranging.” This involves pointing lasers from Earth at reflectors on the Moon placed there by the Apollo missions and the Soviet Luna program. Since then, round trip travel times of laser beams are recorded. The research team analyzed “Lunar Laser Ranging” data collected over a period of 50 years, from 1970 to 2022, and investigated such mass difference effects. Since no effect was found, this means that the passive and active gravitational masses are equal to approximately 14 decimal places. This estimate is a hundred times more accurate than the best previous study, dating back to 1986.

Unique expertise

LUH’s Institute of Geodesy – one of only four centers worldwide analyzing laser distance measurements to the Moon – has unique expertise in assessing the data, particularly for testing general relativity. In the current study, the institute analyzed the Lunar Laser Ranging measurements, including error analysis and interpretation of the results.

Vishwa Vijay Singh, Jürgen Müller and Liliane Biskupek from the Institute of Geodesy at Leibniz University Hannover, as well as Eva Hackmann and Claus Lämmerzahl from the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen published their findings in the journal Physical Review Letters, where the paper was highlighted in the category “editors’ suggestion.”

Reference: “Equivalence of Active and Passive Gravitational Mass Tested with Lunar Laser Ranging” by Vishwa Vijay Singh, Jürgen Müller, Liliane Biskupek, Eva Hackmann and Claus Lämmerzahl, 13 July 2023, Physical Review Letters.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.021401

READ  Polio di New York: Darurat bencana diumumkan setelah virus terdeteksi di air limbah Kabupaten Nassau